Padlock with Wordpress logo in the unlocked position

Securing WordPress with AppArmor

WordPress is a very popular CMS. According to one report, 30% of websites use WordPress, which is an impressive feat.

Despite this popularity, WordPress is built upon PHP which is often lacking in the security department. Add to this that the user that runs the webserver often has a fair bit of access and there is no distinguishing between the webserver code and the WordPress code and you set yourself up for troubles.

So, let’s introduce something that not only can tell the difference between Apache running and WordPress running under it, but also limit what WordPress can access.

As the AppArmor wiki says “AppArmor is Mandatory Access Control (MAC) like security system for Linux. AppArmor confines individual programs to a set of files, capabilities, network access and rlimits…”.  AppArmor also has this concept of hats, so your webserver code (e.g. apache) can be one hat with one policy but the WordPress PHP code has another hat and therefore another policy. For some reason, AppArmor calls a policy a profile, so wherever you see profile translate that to policy.

The idea here is to limit what WordPress can access down to the files and directories it needs, and nothing more. What follows is how I have setup my system but you may need to tweak it, especially for some plugins.

psmisc 23.0

I had to go check but it has been over 3 years since the last psmisc release back in February 2014. I really didn’t think it had been that long ago.  Anyhow, with no further delay, psmisc version 23.0 has been released today!

Update: 23.1 is out now, removed some debug line out of killall and shipped two missing documents.

The sudo tty bug and procps

There have been recent reports of a security bug in sudo (CVE-2017-1000367) where you can fool sudo into thinking what controlling terminal it is running on to bypass its security checks.  One of the first things I thought of was, is procps vulnerable to the same bug? Sure, it wouldn’t be a security bypass, but it would be a normal sort of bug. A lot of programs  in procps have a concept of a controlling terminal, or the TTY field for either viewing or filtering, could they be fooled into thinking the process had a different controlling terminal?

Was I going to be in the same pickle as the sudo maintainers? The meat between the stat parsing sandwich? Can I find any more puns related somehow to the XKCD comic?


procps 3.3.12

The procps developers are happy to announce that version 3.3.12 of procps was released today. This version has a mixture of bug fixes and enhancements. This unfortunately means another API bump but we are hoping this will be fixed with the new library API coming soon.

procps is developed on gitlab and the new version of procps can be found at

procps 3.3.12 can be found at

Sheepdog staring off a RAM sheep

Displaying Linux Memory

Memory management is hard, but RAM management may be even harder.

Most people know the vague overall concept of how memory usage is displayed within Linux. You have your total memory which is everything inside the box; then there is used and free which is what the system is or is not using respectively. Some people might know that not all used is used and some of it actually is free.  It can be very confusing to understand, even for a someone who maintains procps (the package that contains top and free, two programs that display memory usage).

So, how does the memory display work?

pidof lost a shell

pidof is a program that reports the PID of a process that has the given command line. It has an option x which means “scripts too”. The idea behind this is if you have a shell script it will find it. Recently there was an issue raised saying pidof was not finding a shell script. Trying it out, pidof indeed could not find the sample script but found other scripts, what was going on?